Types of Tying Agreement

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In the world of business, tying agreements often play a critical role in securing contracts between two entities. A tying agreement refers to the practice of selling one product or service on the condition that the buyer purchases another product or service from the same company. It is also known as “bundling.”

This practice can occur in various forms, depending on the business`s nature and the products or services it offers. Over the years, different types of tying agreements have emerged, each with its unique characteristics. In this article, we`ll take a closer look at some of the most common types of tying agreements.

1. Full-Line Forcing

A full-line forcing agreement requires buyers to purchase an entire line of products from one company to access a single product or service. This type of tying agreement is often practiced by companies that produce a wide range of products, such as electronics manufacturers. For example, a buyer may be required to purchase a laptop, phone, and TV from the same company to gain access to a specific software program or app.

2. Exclusive Dealing Arrangements

An exclusive dealing arrangement is a type of tying agreement that occurs when a buyer agrees only to purchase products or services from a single company for a set period. This type of arrangement benefits the seller by providing a guaranteed source of income and limiting competition. However, it can harm the buyer, who may be forced to pay higher prices or use inferior products.

3. Tying Through Rebates

A tying arrangement through rebates is when a buyer receives a discount or rebate on one product or service if they purchase another product or service from the same company. This type of tying agreement is often used in the technology industry. For example, a buyer may receive a rebate on a laptop if they purchase a specific software program from the same manufacturer.

4. Tying Through Package Deals

A tying arrangement through package deals occurs when a company offers multiple products or services together at a discounted price. This type of tying agreement is often used in the hospitality and tourism industry. For example, a hotel may offer a package deal that includes a room, meals, and attractions at a discount.


Different types of tying agreements exist, each with its unique characteristics and benefits. While tying agreements can benefit businesses, they can also be harmful to customers, who may be forced into purchasing products or services they do not need or want. It`s essential for businesses to consider the ethics of tying agreements and work to ensure that customers are not exploited in the process.

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